Here are some alarming statistics about the state of Native American housing and conditions. Although many tribes have enjoyed the success of casinos on their reservations many are still very poor and live in substandard conditions. This accentuates the need for additional help from housing and construction professionals.
200,000 housing units are needed immediately in Indian country.
90,000 Native families are homeless or under-housed. Source: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, "A Quiet Crisis: Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country," 2003
14.7% of homes are overcrowded, compared to 5.7% of homes of the general U.S. population. (Census Bureau, 2000)
11.7% of residents lack complete plumbing facilities, compared to 1.2% of the general U.S. population. (Census Bureau, 2000)
Lack of Telephone Service: 16.9%, compared to 2.4%. (Census Bureau, 2000)
Lack of Kitchen Facilities: 11%, compared to 1% (Government Accounting Office, 2005)
Lack of Utility Gas: 72%, compared to 49% (Government Accounting Office, 2005)
750,000 Native Americans live on reservations or in other tribal areas. (Fannie Mae 2005 report based on Census statistics)
34% of the Native population resides in rural areas (Census Bureau, American Indian/Alaska Native Heritage Month, 2003)
Four out of ten American Indians live in Western states: AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY. (Census Bureau, 2003)
Poverty rate for Native Americans is approximately 26%, 2.6 times higher than that for whites
Unemployment rates twice as high as the U.S. rate of 6%. In all Indian areas the unemployment rate is 22% for non-gaming tribes and 15% for gaming tribes. (Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development: A Databook of SocioEconomic Change between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses)
Native Americans have the second lowest median household income, $32,116, while whites have the highest at $46,305. (Census Bureau press release, 9/24/2002)
206,125 American Indian and Alaska Native-owned businesses in 2002, with receipts of $26.4 billion.
Native American homeownership rate is estimated to be as low as 33%, lowest among all ethnic groups and less than half the rate for the general U.S. population. ("Homeownership in Indian Country," The Enterprise Institute, 2004)
HUD Section 184 Indian Housing Loan Guarantee Program: Created in 1992, the program provides 100% reimbursement to private lenders in case of default. It has facilitated 2,647 loans amounting to almost $277 million; more than 280 individual financial institutions, a number of which have multiple branches, have become participants in Section 184; 27 of them are new in FY 2005. Of the 2,647 loans, 1,628 were fee simple, 119 on individual allotments and 900 on tribal trust. From 2004-2005 production increased: 2004- 619 loans for over $62 million; 2005- 634 loans for almost $77 million. (HUD as Nov. 7, 2005)
Over five years, Fannie Mae provided $640 million for more than 7,100 families on tribal lands. From year to year their investment grew exponentially, from $30.2 million in 1999 to $290 million in 2003. (Fannie Mae as of October 2004) (All loan data from: Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council for institutions covered by the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, August 2004)
A review of Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data revealed a 39-percent increase in housing loans to American Indians and Alaskan Natives between 1997 and 2001. ("Overcoming Challenges and Seizing Opportunities in Indian Country," speech by Governor Mark W. Olson, 2002)